使用ansible创建新用户并设置密码

2018/06/20 linux

使用ansible的role创建用户名及随机密码,并设置密码立即过期,这样用户首次登录时需要更改为自己的密码,一是方便用户使用,二是确保安全。

1. 创建hosts文件

cd /etc/ansible/playbooks

hosts内容如下:

$ cat hosts

[test]
192.168.10.101
192.168.10.102

[test:vars]
ansible_ssh_user=ubuntu
ansible_ssh_pass=ubuntu
ansible_sudo_pass=ubuntu

这里的账号密码sudo密码,在[test:vars]下定义并应用到test组的所有机器。

2. 创建create_user.yml

$ cat create_user.yml 
# create_user playbook
- hosts: test
  become: True
  user: ubuntu

  roles:
    - create_user

这里hosts: test中的test对应机器为hosts文件中的test组机器。

3. 创建roles对应的main.yml

创建目录,mkdir -p roles/create_user/tasks,注意这里的roles/create_user与create_user.yml的最后2行配置要一致。

main.yml内容如下:

$ cat roles/create_user/tasks/main.yml

# Generate random password for new_user_name and the new_user_name
# is required to change his/her password on first logon. 

- name: Generate password for new user
  #shell: echo -n "1qaz2wsx" # 如需设置每台机器的账号密码一样,可启用此行
                             # 注释下一行"shell: command openssl rand -base64 6"
  shell: command openssl rand -base64 6
  register: user_password

- name: Generate encrypted password for new user
  shell: command openssl passwd -salt '2018model' -1 {{ user_password.stdout }}
  register: encrypted_user_password

- name: Create user account
  user: 
      name: "{{ new_user_name }}"
      password: "{{ encrypted_user_password.stdout }}"
#password: "{{ 'password' | password_hash('sha512') }}"
      shell: /bin/bash
      update_password: on_create
      state: present
      groups: adm,sudo
  when: new_user_name is defined
  register: user_created

- name: Force user to change password
  shell: chage -d 0 {{ new_user_name }}
  when: user_created.changed

- name: User created
  debug: msg="Password for {{ new_user_name }} is {{ user_password.stdout }}"
  when: user_created.changed

4. 运行playbook添加账号

添加账号并对每个账号创建随机密码,设置密码过期,首次登录需修改密码。

$ ansible-playbook -i hosts create_user.yml –extra-vars “new_user_name=test2018” -f 10 –sudo

# -i  指定主机文件
# -f 10 设置并发数为10
# --sudo 使用sudo,
不建议这样做,建议使用-b, --become run operations with become -b参数为提权
# -extra-vars 
-e EXTRA_VARS, --extra-vars=EXTRA_VARS set additional variables as key=value or YAML/JSON
# 额外的变量设置,以"键=值"形式填写,或yaml、json形式。
$ansible-playbook -i hosts create_user.yml --extra-vars "new_user_name=test2018" -f 10 \
--sudo 

PLAY ***************************************************************************

TASK [setup] *******************************************************************
ok: [192.168.10.102]
ok: [192.168.10.101]

TASK [create_user : Generate password for new user] ****************************
changed: [192.168.10.101]
changed: [192.168.10.102]

TASK [create_user : Generate encrypted password for new user] ******************
changed: [192.168.10.101]
changed: [192.168.10.102]

TASK [create_user : Create user account] ***************************************
changed: [192.168.10.101]
changed: [192.168.10.102]

TASK [create_user : Force user to change password] *****************************
changed: [192.168.10.101]
changed: [192.168.10.102]

TASK [create_user : User created] **********************************************
ok: [192.168.10.101] => {
    "msg": "Password for test2018 is zkmuXatj"
}
ok: [192.168.10.102] => {
    "msg": "Password for test2018 is qTUPuvoi"
}

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************
192.168.10.101             : ok=6    changed=4    unreachable=0    failed=0   
192.168.10.102             : ok=6    changed=4    unreachable=0    failed=0 

创建的各个机器的账号密码如下:

IP 账号 密码
192.168.10.101 test2018 zkmuXatj
192.168.10.102 test2018 qTUPuvoi

5. 登陆验证

通过ssh连接192.168.10.101,会看到密码过期的提示(Your password has expired),输入当前密码zkmuXatj–>输入两遍新密码重置,之后重新使用新密码连接即可。

$ssh test2018@192.168.10.101
test2018@192.168.10.101's password: 
You are required to change your password immediately (root enforced)
Welcome to Ubuntu 14.04.5 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.4.0-31-generic x86_64)

The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by
applicable law.

WARNING: Your password has expired.
You must change your password now and login again!
Changing password for test2018.
(current) UNIX password: 
Enter new UNIX password: 
Retype new UNIX password: 
passwd: password updated successfully
Connection to 192.168.10.101 closed.

参考

creating-a-new-user-and-password-with-ansible

其他

可将host中的账号密码等信息放到group_vars目录下的一个test.yml,之后使用ansible-vault对test.yml加密,防止账号密码泄露,确保安全。 详细步骤可参考:

Ansible vault example

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